Quiz

Facts and Misconceptions about SRI

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SRI stands for System of Rice Intensification. Although not a new technique, many questions about SRI remain unresolved. Its proponents and critics still debate the proclaimed SRI benefits. By August 2018, more than 800 scientific papers on SRI have been published, discussing this concept. Below you will find some facts and misconceptions about SRI. Try to guess which ones are true and which not. You can always learn more about this topic in our Interactive Lecture on SRI.

Creative Commons LicenseFacts and Misconceptions about SRI by Julia Stümpel and Banu Sengül is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

 

Agricultural Practices

Toolbox

Toolbox

Video

Urine Utilisation Video

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The following video will give you an insight into the utilisation of urine in agriculture. For more information, make sure to check out the rest of the material on this topic. Enjoy!

Creative Commons LicenseUrine Utilisation Video by Andrea Munoz Ardila is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

 

Urine Utilisation

urine utilisation main post

Toolbox

Toolbox

News

New Making of RUVIVAL Section

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Many people are involved in developing RUVIVAL learning materials. This is both a challenging and rewarding process. On the one hand, it requires thorough planning and elaborate coordination, but on the other, unique perspectives, linkages and expertise emerge from this exchange. We strongly feel that this is a story that needs to be told alongside the sustainable rural development content you see on our website as the finished product. This is why we are introducing a whole new Making of RUVIVAL section. Here you will be able to read more about how different RUVIVAL elements are created, about the technical and pedagogic aspects, as well as about the experiences of those taking part.
Making of RUVIVAL
Allgemein

Making of RUVIVAL

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Sustainable rural development is an answer to a multitude of complex pressing issues that require global attention. The responses to these issues are equally complex and the best ones are those that draw synergistic connections and offer holistic solutions. In the making of RUVIVAL, these complexities are recognised and addressed, both when it comes to problems and solutions. That is why in developing RUVIVAL learning elements, different tools, materials and styles are used, for a comprehensive learning experience. Some elements have a more technical or practical nature, while others are more theoretical. Some are text based and others are image based.

Collaboration is key for developing RUVIVAL into the open access e-learning platform it is today. You can see all RUVIVAL collaborators in the Team list. Beyond this, the newest project addition RUVIVAL Community is helping to bring invaluable knowledge sources and practice examples.

In the following, you will learn how all these different components come together when creating RUVIVAL. Click on the elements to learn more:

News

Help us translate RUVIVAL into YOUR language!

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When we first launched RUVIVAL back in 2016, we decided to do so in English, in odrer to reach the widest audience possible. However, our goal has always been to reach bigger and broader audiences. As you already know, RUVIVAL is from now on available both in English and Spanish, but we do not want to stop here! This is why we are reaching out to you, our community, to ask for your contribution towards making RUVIVAL multilingual and truly global!

There are several ways in which you can help us translate RUVIVAL. Of course, you will be given due credit for your work and be listed as a contributor on our website. The general discussion regarding translation will take place in the RUVIVAL Community discussion forum. Here both the technical and linguistic details will be discussed. Our stop motion videos are also open for community contributions, which can be done through our YouTube channel. You are free to send us your translation on the topic of your choosing – whether it is your research topic, your favorite RUVIVAL element, or information you think is useful to the people in your community. We look forward to your contributions!

News

RUVIVAL now in Spanish!

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Hola! We are excited to announce: RUVIVAL is now available in Spanish!

We publish each Thursday new Spanish e-learning content and we will start today with a lecture on Raw Earth Construction:

English Version: Raw Earth Construction

Spanish Version: Construcción con Tierra Cruda

Each post with a Spanish version available will have this indicated at the top of your screen.

Ever since its beginning, RUVIVAL is on a mission to reach a wider audience and spread the word on sustainable rural development. Now this word is also available in Spanish. Therefore, we welcome the Spanish speaking community into our growing RUVIVAL network. We will start to publish material in our lecture section and keep up in 2019 with material in the toolbox.

Join our Newsletter to receive an e-mail when new content is released.

Parte 1

Parte 1 Clase Construccion con Tierra Cruda

Parte 2

Parte_2

News

New Topics in the RUVIVAL Community Writers Corner!

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As the RUVIVAL Community Writers Corner slowly picks up pace, we would like to draw your attention to the newly opened forum threads.

Writers Corner is where participants can meet in our forum RUVIVAL Community and be part of the publication process – become editors and bring their own ideas to the table.

Don’t forget, we will collect all comments, ideas and hints on the 5th of December 2018! So make sure your contributions are posted early enough to be considered by the authors for Volume 4 and 5 in the RUVIVAL Publication Series.

Click here to open the category Writers Corner.

Category Writers Corner RUVIVAL Community

The new discussion topics are Traditional Rainwater Harvesting, Decentralised Wastewater Treatment and World Soil Resources. Click on the elements below to read the literature reviews.


Read more about RUVIVAL Community here.

Literature Review

Rural Energy Systems Literature Review

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Providing access to electricity in rural areas is a major challenge, especially in developing countries. Inefficient energy use and an unreliable energy supply with limited access not only has an adverse effect on economic productivity; more importantly, it also affects people’s quality of life and is having a strong impact on the environment at local (land degradation), regional (air, water and soil pollution) and global levels (climate change). This paper reviews distributed renewable energy systems and concentrates on energy services for electricity generation in Africa.

This is a working paper reflecting ongoing work. Comments and suggestions are welcome, please refer to our discussion forum RUVIVAL Community. An updated version of this paper will be published as part of RUVIVAL Publication Series Volume 5.

Rural_Energy_Systems_Working_Paper
Water Efficiency in Agricultural Irrigation Literature Review Creative Commons License Energy Access for Sustainable Rural Development: Literature Review on Distributed Renewable Energy for Rural Electrification in Africa by Tina Carmesin, Benedikt Buchspies and Ruth Schaldach is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

 

Rural Energy Systems

Toolbox Rural Energy Systems

Toolbox

Toolbox

Toolbox

Rural Energy Systems

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Universal access to modern energy is driven by both local and global factors, including climate change, population increase and future energy security. In order to be sustainable in the long term, rural energy systems need to meet the energy requirements of rural dwellers, while raising economic productivity and contributing to a sustainable development of the living conditions in these areas. They should also provide inputs for further rural energy interventions and reduce the environmental impact by focusing on renewable energy technologies.

For more information about this topic, please click on the elements below.

Rural Energy Systems Literature Review

Rural Energy Systems Literature Review


More to come in the following weeks…

In the meantime, if you would like to learn more about rural development, please take a further look at our website. Please keep in mind that new materials are available weekly and join our Newsletter to receive an e-mail when new content is published.

Toolbox

Toolbox

 

News

RUVIVAL Community – Writers Corner published

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Today we launch the Writers Corner! 

The Writers Corner participants meet in our forum RUVIVAL Community. Now you can be part of the publication process – be an editor and bring your ideas into the discussion.

In the upcoming weeks working papers will be presented and each paper will have its own thread in the forum.

We will collect all comments, ideas and hints on the 5th of December 2018, so make sure your contributions are posted early enough to be considered by the authors for Volume 4 and 5 in the RUVIVAL Publication Series.

Click here to open the category Writers Corner.

Category Writers Corner RUVIVAL Community

We will start to discuss literature reviews on Soil Erosion and Rural Energy Systems. Click on an element below to read the literature review.

Literature Review Soil Erosion          Rural Energy Systems Literature Review

Find more about the RUVIVAL Community here. Stay tuned as we will publish another new literature review next week!

Literature Review

Soil Erosion Literature Review

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Soil erosion is a devastating process leaving landscapes infertile and difficult to revive. The Global Soil Status is already at a worrisome state and research on erosion measures is getting more and more important. The following Literature Review gives you an overview on soil erosion processes and most recent research on the topic. The focus is set on erosion measures, firstly, to prevent erosion and secondly, to reverse erosion.

This is a working paper reflecting ongoing work. Comments and suggestions are welcome, please refer to our discussion forum RUVIVAL Community. An updated version of this paper will be published as part of RUVIVAL Publication Series Volume 5.

Soil_Erosion_Working_Paper
Water Efficiency in Agricultural Irrigation Literature Review Creative Commons LicenseSoil Erosion by Antonio Seoane Dominguez and Ruth Schaldach is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

 

Soil Erosion

Soil Erosion

Toolbox

Toolbox

News

RUVIVAL Community – Forum online

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Dear RUVIVAL fans and followers, we are happy to announce that we developed a new project section dedicated only to you:

Logo RUVIVAL Community

In order to further support you, our RUVIVAL Community, we offer a forum for knowledge exchange and networking. We will keep it short here, as you can find all information about the forum in our new website menu Community.

Even if you are new around here, you can also be part of our community! We are an e-learning project about sustainable rural development and offer several project sections and materials. Find more information about us in our project description. If you are interested in the development process of our material check our making of RUVIVAL. Have a look around our website and if you have any questions contact us.

Join the forum and be part of a community of knowledge production and sharing – we would love to see you online!

News

Impressions from the Day of Science

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Last weekend we presented our project at the Day of Science at Hamburg University of Technology (Tag des Wissens). We want to thank all visitors for your active participation.

Ruth Schaldach let the audience look behind the scenes of the serious game and invited the audience of the talk to participate next year. The next game will start in May 2019 and you can already book your place.

It was a lot of fun playing the wheel of fortune quiz! The main price were bags with the RUVIVAL logo as a stencil handmade by the RUVIVAL Team.

Finally, we were highly honoured at the event as the Deputy Mayor of Hamburg and Senator for Science, Research and Equal Rights, Katharina Fegebank, as well as the President of Hamburg University of Technology, Prof. Dr. Ed Brinksma and Vice President for Teaching at Hamburg University of Technology, Prof. Dr. Sönke Knutzen visited us.

 

Tina Carmesin explains the next steps of the RUVIVAL project to Katharina Fegebank, Ed Brinksma and Sönke Knutzen

To give all our readers a small glimpse into the event we prepared a photo presentation below. Enjoy and stay tuned: next week we will publish a whole new project section!

To learn more about Hamburg Open Online University and our partners, have a look at the following webpages:

HOOU – Hamburg Open Online University

Kniffelix

MikiE

SciFiVisons

Centre of Teaching and Learning at the TUHH

 

Quiz

Toiletiquette

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Toilet etiquette refers to toilet and hygiene culture and manners, which naturally vary across cultures. Beyond these cultural variations, there are severe differences in access to basic sanitation across the globe. Universal access to adequate sanitation is a fundamental need and human right. Click through the tool below to learn more.

Creative Commons License Toiletiquette by Mascha Bandow and Nicolai Rolow is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

 

Terra Preta Sanitation

Terra Preta Sanitation

Urine Utilisation

urine utilisation main post

Toolbox

Toolbox

News

Get to know RUVIVAL at the Day of Science

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This year’s Day of Science (Tag des Wissens) takes place at Hamburg University of Technology and the topic ‘Technology and the Digital World’ couldn’t fit better to our project!

Tag des Wissens 2018

We can’t wait to welcome you to experience RUVIVAL along with around 50 other interesting projects presented by different universities and research-based companies.

Interact with RUVIVAL and other Hamburg Open Online University Projects: The Wheel of Fortune

Together with two other Hamburg Open Online University projects, Kniffelix and MikiE, we would like to introduce you to the world of online learning!
We prepared a little game: The Wheel of Fortune will decide which questions have to be answered. Find the right answers by using our online content. For the ones who can find the most solutions, great prices are waiting!

Talk about Online Education: RUVIVAL Simulation Game

Furthermore, Ruth Schaldach, member of the RUVIVAL team, is going to take part in an event held by the ‘Centre of Teaching and Learning at the TUHH (ZLL)’ She is going to demonstrate the possibilities and advantages of innovative methods in online education on the example of our RUVIVAL Simulation Game .
To get to this event,you don’t even need to leave the building! It’s just around the corner in room H0.04 and will start at 14:00.
If there are already questions popping up into your mind, you can note them here and if they are matching the overall content, they will be included in the speech.

 

Key facts to remember:

What: RUVIVAL at the Day of Sciences in Hamburg

When: 22nd September 2018, from 13:00 to 18:00

Where: Hamburg University of Technology, Am Schwarzenberg-Campus 5, 21073 Hamburg, Building H, room H0.09

How to reach us: Take the S3 or S31 to the station Harburg Rathaus and then follow the signs! Or you catch the bus no. 14, 143, 146, 443 or 543, and get out at Eißendorferstr. (TU Hamburg).

See you soon at the day of Science in Hamburg!

Find us here: University of Technology Hamburg, Building H, Room 0.09

Further information and the program of the Day of Science can be found here (German):

Day of Science (Tag des Wissens)

Program of all Hamburg Open Online University Projects

To learn more about Hamburg Open Online University and our partners, have a look at the following webpages:

HOOU – Hamburg Open Online University

Kniffelix

MikiE

Centre of Teaching and Learning at the TUHH

Quiz

Water Quantity and Quality Quiz

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Time for a knowledge check! See how much you have learned and try out the water quantity and quality quiz. Did you learn enough about groundwater, surface water and rainwater measurement as well as water quality determination so far? You can return to the Quiz at any time, in case you are not feeling like an expert yet. All answers to the quiz questions can be found within the Toolbox element, so make sure to check out the rest of the material for more information! Good luck!

Creative Commons LicenseWater Quantity and Quality Quiz by Birthe Hohm and Ruth Schaldach is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Handbook

Measuring Rainfall Frequency and Intensity

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Ever wondered how much rain is falling at your place? Then you should learn more about measuring rainfall to estimate your rainwater harvesting potential with this e-learning tool.

Methods for Rainwater Quantification

We will provide you with a rain gauge construction manual. This gives you the opportunity to measure your rainfall without using much equipment. Everybody can help to keep an eye on our planets water resources and you can start. Have a look by yourself and try out your first tests.

Creative Commons LicenseMeasuring Rainfall by Birthe Hohm and Ruth Schaldach is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Rainwater is an important water resource by naturally irrigating plants and recharging water sheds. Rainfall is collected by rainwater harvesting (also see: traditional and land-based rainwater harvesting), stored and later used. Thus, knowledge on the speed of recharge is important in order to know how fast you can use your stored water resources. Additionally, rainfall is changing with the seasons in frequency and intensity. You can calculate with this Rainwater Collection Calculator based on your data the yearly collection potentials, which helps to plan your storage devices. As dryer a region is as more important it is to collect and store in these seldom peak times, which makes an exact planing even more important. Consequently, observing the rainfall is one of the first steps for sustainable usage practices.

World Water Resources

World Water Resources

Toolbox

Toolbox

Handbook

Water Condition Analysis Guide

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Ever wondered how the water quality of your water resource is? Then you should learn more about the condition of your water sources with this e-learning tool.

Methods for Water Quality Determination

We will provide you with some techniques, which do not need much equipment. This gives you already an idea on your water body’s condition. Everybody can help to keep an eye on our planets water resources. However, for more precise measurements we need more elaborate methods. Have a look by yourself and try out your first tests.

Creative Commons LicenseWater Condition Analysis Guide by Birthe Hohm and Ruth Schaldach is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Water condition analysis is the first step to check on the quality of a water body. It describes the biological, chemical and physical state of water and tells you how healthy a water resource is. A good water quality and good water health is important for the ecosystem, thus checking on the water condition is an important step for sustainable water usage practices and once implemented to monitor these. However it is also very important for your personal health and well-being. It follows a simple logic: You can only stay healthy, if you use good quality water for drinking water supply and irrigation systems.

Agriculture and urbanisation draw heavy on the worlds water resources and unsustainable practices show more and more their signs. Already, several rivers and lakes are polluted and even groundwater resource are not protected from getting increasingly polluted any more. However, everybody is in the responsibility to avoid pollution and to treat your environment responsible. All water resources are part of the hydrosphere and thus connected with each other, which leads to an easy spread of pollution from one water resource to another. Due to this importance several methods for measuring water quality developed over time. For a precise determination of water quality, a complex set of measurements are needed like Measuring Groundwater QuantitiesMeasuring Surface Water Quantities and Measuring Rainfall Frequency and Intensity, but for a first idea only few parameters are sufficient.

World Water Resources

World Water Resources

Toolbox

Toolbox

Literature Review

World Soil Resources Literature Review

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During the last few decades, technological innovations, economic development and hyper-globalisation, have made significant changes to the fundamental structure of the Earth. This includes the soil, which is one of the most important substances for living creatures. FAO defines soil degradation as the decline in soil health condition, as a result of which the capacity of ecosystems to provide goods and services for its beneficiaries is diminished.

The total amount of arable land decreased, mainly due to unsuitable land usage related to agricultural practices. The Third Agricultural Revolution and growing food demands have put critical stress on agricultural land resulting in serious soil degradation. As a result of modern agricultural practices, both chemical and physical degradation of soil occur. An interrelated factor contributing to the loss of arable land is erosion, which is a naturally occurring process, which can be promoted by human activities.

This paper reviews research conducted on the global soil situation and goes deeper into regional soil conditions. Geographically specific causes for soil loss are also given. Soil management and monitoring systems are recommended, however, it should be noted that each system needs to be adapted to its specific environment.

This is a working paper reflecting ongoing work. Comments and suggestions are welcome, please use our Contact form. An updated version will be published as part of RUVIVAL Publication Series Volume 4.

Global_Soil_Status_Working_Paper
Creative Commons LicenseWorking Paper: A Review of the Global Soil Status Introducing Regional Soil Conditions by Zhuoheng Chen, Tavseef Mairaj Shah and Ruth Schaldach is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

 

World Soil Resources

world soil resources

Toolbox

Toolbox

Handbook

Measuring Surface Water Quantities

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Ever wondered how much surface water is in rivers, lakes, channels and reservoirs around you? Then you should learn more about measuring surface water with this e-learning tool.

Methods for Surface Water Quantification

We will provide you with some measuring techniques, which do not need much equipment. This gives you already a good idea on your surrounding surface water status. Everybody can help to keep an eye on our planets water resources. However, for more precise measurements you will need more elaborate methods. Have a look by yourself and try out your first tests.

Creative Commons LicenseMeasuring Surface Water by Birthe Hohm and Ruth Schaldach is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Surface water is an important water source not only for recreational purposes. Rivers, Lakes and channels are the most easily accessible water sources, which are naturally widely spread over the planet. Surface water is part of the hydrosphere and thus depends on recharge and discharge even without human beings starting to influence these processes. Thus, surface water quantification is the first step for developing sustainable water usage practices and once implemented to monitor these.

Firstly, if you know the recharge speed of your system, you can set discharge limits. Secondly, surface water bodies should never dry out under a limit, which makes it very important to never use too much. A functioning aquatic ecosystems needs a minimum flow level to survive. However, surface water is more exposed as underground water and, therefore, more vulnerable to climatic conditions like high evaporation rates in times of drought. Additionally, this water source is also most affected by pollution as it is easy accessible and exposed. The agricultural revolution, industrialisation and urbanisation draw heavy on surface water resources, especially in regions without an implemented waste water treatment infrastructure. As dryer the region is as more vulnerable is your system and more important it is to know your surface water bodies exactly.

Therefore, measuring and mapping your water quantities gives you important directions for sustainable usage practices.

World Water Resources

World Water Resources

Toolbox

Toolbox

Handbook

Measuring Groundwater Quantities

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Ever wondered how much groundwater is under your feet? Then you should learn more about measuring groundwater with this e-learning tool.

Methods of Groundwater Quantification

We will provide you with some techniques, which do not need much equipment to give you already an idea on your groundwater. Everybody can help to keep an eye on our planets water resources. However, for more precise measurements more elaborate methods are needed. Have a look by yourself and try out your first tests.

Creative Commons LicenseMeasuring Groundwater by Birthe Hohm and Ruth Schaldach is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Groundwater quantification is also the first step for developing sustainable water usage practices and once implemented to monitor these. It follows a simple logic: You need to know how much water is there, before you know how much can be used. You need  to know how fast your system gets recharged to know how fast you can use your water reservoirs without harming your storage system. Storage systems should never dry out completely, which makes it very important to never pump your groundwater too fast to the surface and use too much. Measuring and mapping your water gives you therefore important directions. As dryer the region is as more vulnerable is your system and more important it is to know your groundwater exactly. Due to this importance several methods for measuring groundwater developed over time. However, quantification of groundwater is difficult due to many hydrological and environmental aspects that must be considered. Groundwater resources are part of the hydrosphere and thus depend on groundwater recharge and discharge even without human beings starting to influence this processes. However, agriculture and urbanisation draw heavy on groundwater resources and unsustainable practices show more and more their signs and some underground storage systems starting to dry out.

World Water Resources

World Water Resources

Toolbox

Toolbox

Calculation

Nutrient Recycling Potential Calculator for Households Using Integrated Decentralised Wastewater Treatment Systems

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The following calculator provides the user with the opportunity to estimate the potential fertilisation area, if faeces and urine from a household are applied.  The recommended integrated decentralised wastewater system would use this fertilisation potential for non-food plants and long term soil enrichment.

Nutrient Recycling Potential Calculator

Faeces Application:

Faeces are rich in phosphorous (P), potassium (K) and organic matter and can contribute to non-food crop production both by their fertilising effect and by their soil-improving effect. The proportion of nitrogen that is in mineral form in faeces varies largely between the different purification strategies and can be lost in form of gases. Therefore, only the Phosphorus-fertilisation of Terra Preta Sanitation compost is considered.

Please find more information in this literature review.

Please Enter The Number of Household Members:

 

Yearly Faeces Production
per Household (kg/a):

Yearly Phosphorus-Fertilisation Area of Terra Preta Sanitation (TPS) compost per Household (m2/a):

Yearly Organic Content Supply Area of  TPS compost per Household (m2/a):

 

Urine Application:

RUVIVAL Urine Application Calculator

Urine contains four important nutrients for plant growth: nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K) and sulphur (S). The direct application of nutrient-rich sanitised urine to the soil for non-food crops provide the opportunity to recover the nutrients and also reduce the use of fertilisers. The urine application calculator tool developed by RUVIVAL calculates the potential urine fertilisation area of a household based on the yearly production of urine.

Click On the Calculator Icon to Access the Urine Calculator

More information about urine application can be found here.

Background of the Calculator

Excreta ValuesValuesUnit 
Daily Faeces Production per Person140g/d(grams per day)
Yearly Faeces Production per person51.1kg/a(kilograms per year)
Yearly Amount of Nitrogen in Faeces per Person550g/a(grams per year)
Yearly Amount of Phosphorous in Faeces per Person183g/a(grams per year)
Phosphorus Fertlisation of TPS Faecal Compost per person900m/a²(square metre per year)
Yearly Organic Content Supply Area of TPS compost per person4.5m²/a(square metre per year)

According to Jönsson et al. (2004), the potential yearly amount of nitrogen and phosphorus in faeces per person in Sweden is 550 g/(a·person) of nitrogen and 183 g/(a·person) of phosphorus. The yearly amount of nitrogen and phosphorus in faeces per household is calculated from the potential yearly amount of nitrogen and phosphorus in faeces per person multiplied by the number of household members.

According to research done in Tanzania by Krause et al. (2015), total phosphorus in TPS compost is found to be 3.6 times the total phosphorus in faeces compost. The yearly faeces fertilisation area of TPS compost per household is calculated from the potential yearly fertilisation area of faeces per person (900 mfor phosphorus) multiplied by the number of household members. The yearly organic content supply area of TPS compost per Household is calculated from the potential yearly organic content supply area of TPS compost per person (4.5m2 /(a·person)) multiplied by the number of household members.

This calculator takes as a reference point the research done by Jönsson et al. (2004), the amount and nutritional value of faeces and urine are based on the data of the Swedish population. It is important to note that amount and nutritional values of faeces and urine are subjected to variation in different regions of the world and are highly dependent on the nutrient uptake and diet of the population. The nutritional value of wastewater streams improves the quality of the urine and faeces to be used as fertilisers for non-food crops.  Therefore, the provided results should only be considered as a reference point when referring to the potential for nutrients recycling in integrated decentralised wastewater treatment.

The values used in this calculation tool are based on the following studies.

Jönsson, H, Richert, A, Vinneraas, B & Salomon, E 2004, Guidelines on the use of urine and faeces in crop production, EcoSanRes Publication Series, 2nd edn, Stockholm Environment Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.

Krause, A, Kaupenjohann, M, George, E & Koeppel, J 2015, ‘Nutrient recycling from sanitation and energy systems to the agroecosystem- Ecological research on case studies in Karagwe, Tanzania’, African Journal of Agricultural Research, vol. 10, no. 43, pp. 4039–5.

Creative Commons License
Nutrient Recycling Potential Calculator for Households Using Integrated Decentralised Wastewater Treatment Systems by Usama Khalid and Ruth Schaldach is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

 

Decentralised WWT


Toolbox

Toolbox

Calculation

Water Saving Potential Calculator for Households Using Decentralised Wastewater Treatment Systems

Posted on

The following calculator tool provides the opportunity to estimate water savings for a household through reuse of the greywater, using the recommended integrated decentralised wastewater system. Separately collected, a less concentrated greywater stream could serve as an alternative irrigation water and flushing water source after minor on-site processing.

For more information on recommended decentralised wastewater system and its proper management, please have a look at further materials provided here.

Water Saving Potential Calculator

 

Number of Household Members:

 

Water Savings per Day from Greywater Reuse and Low-Flush Toilets per Household (l/day):

Yearly Water Savings from Greywater Reuse and Low-Flush Toilets per Household (l/year):

 

Background of the Calculator

According to Friedler (2004), greywater reuse could decrease the water demand of a household by 48 % and lead to water savings of up to 70 litres per person per day. The yearly water savings from greywater reuse and low-flush toilets per household (l/year) is calculated from the potential daily water savings from greywater reuse and low-flush toilets per person (48 % of daily water use i.e. 70 l/day) multiplied by the number of household members and 365 days.

The value of average daily water use per person is taken to be 146 l/day per person, however, the value is subjected to variation for different regions of the world. The provided results should be considered just as a reference point when referring to the potential for water reuse in integrated decentralised wastewater treatment.

Friedler, E 2004, ‘Quality of individual domestic greywater streams and its implication for on-site treatment and reuse possibilities’, Environmental Technology, vol. 25 no. 9, pp.997-1008.

Creative Commons LicenseWater Saving Potential Calculator for Households Using Decentralised Wastewater Treatment Systems by Usama Khalid and Ruth Schaldach is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

 

Decentralised WWT


Toolbox

Toolbox

Interactive Image

Recommended Integrated Decentralised Wastewater Treatment System for a Rural Household

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Rural households often have to rely on decentralised systems for their wastewater treatment and sanitation needs. The following image gives an overview of a recommended integrated decentralised wastewater treatment system for a rural household. The system is based on the concept of ecological sanitation, involving separation of brown, grey and yellow water through source control schemes. It focuses on the extraction of nutrients from brown and yellow water. The reuse of greywater for non-potable purposes is also integrated in order to help to close nutrient and water cycles. Please click on the hotspots in the image for more information.

Creative Commons LicenseRecommended Integrated Decentralised Wastewater Treatment System for a Rural Household by Usama Khalid and Ruth Schaldach is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

 

Decentralised WWT


Toolbox

Toolbox

Quiz

Animals in Permaculture Quiz

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It may not seem right on a first glance to raise animals in permaculture systems. However, when done on a correct scale, raising animals on a small piece of land can offer balance and sustained fertility, with improved quality of the food products. Animals eat from pastures, as well as from waste products from the land, while at the same time offering fertility and numerous food products for us humans. Check your knowledge of the potential role animals can have in permaculture in the quiz below!

Creative Commons LicenseAnimals in Permaculture Quiz by Robin Kulpa and Richa Rajoriya is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

 

Livestock

RUVIVAL Toolbox Lifestock

Toolbox

Toolbox

Interactive Image

Environmental Impact of Livestock

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Conventional livestock production has severe impacts on the environment, which affect its every medium. Click on the hotspots below to learn more about these impacts! Keep in mind that this image is meant as symbolic, in order to draw direct connections between livestock and the environmental medium at hand. In reality, animals in conventional farming systems are usually raised in confinment, in so called animal feeding operations (AFO) or confined animal feeding operations (CAFO). Not only does this way of keeping animals affect the environment, but it also has severe negative imacts on animal livelihood.

Creative Commons LicenseEnvironmental Impact of Livestock by Nina Wandel is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

 

Livestock

RUVIVAL Toolbox Lifestock

Toolbox

Toolbox

News

Contribute to the Next Volume of RUVIVAL Publication Series!

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We are excited to announce that the next volume of RUVIVAL Publication Series is in the making! This time, we want to try something new and engage with you, our audience, in this process! In the following weeks, we invite you to give us feedback and share your own ideas on the working papers we have published and will publish in the upcoming weeks and which will be part of Volume 4 of our Publication Series!

RUVIVAL Publication Series

Your comments and suggestions will be incorporeted by our authors, to ensure the best and most relevant content on these pressing topics. Contributors will of course be specially named and every input will be given due credit. Comments are welcome using our Contact Form.

Through this step, which is a glimpse into what is soon coming for RUVIVAL, we want to encourage our many diverse communities to share their unique perspective and be heard, as well as to learn about one another. We will be able to share important information to achieve our larger goal – reviving the rural!

Click on the links below to directly access the available working papers. This list will be duly updated, once the papers are online. We are looking forward to all your entries!

Traditional RWH

Decentralised WWT

Global Soil Situation

Literature Review

Decentralised Wastewater Treatment Literature Review

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Sustainable wastewater management in any situation is the one that is economically affordable, environmentally sound, technically and institutionally consistent, and socially acceptable for the specific situation. This paper presents a review of the advantages and limitations of various centralised and decentralised wastewater treatment options. Centralised wastewater collection and treatment systems are resource intensive and complex to build and operate, especially in areas with low population densities and dispersed households. Alternatively, the approach of decentralised wastewater treatment appears as a sustainable and logical solution to tackle problems of rural wastewater management.

This is a working paper reflecting ongoing work. Comments and suggestions are welcome, please use our Contact form. An updated version will be published as part of RUVIVAL Publication Series Volume 4.

Decentralised_WWT_Working_Paper
Water Efficiency in Agricultural Irrigation Literature Review Creative Commons LicenseWorking Paper: Integrated decentralised wastewater treatment for rural areas with focus on resource recovery by Usama Khalid and Carla Orozco Garcia is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

 

Decentralised WWT


Toolbox

Toolbox

Literature Review

Traditional Rainwater Harvesting Literature Review

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Over centuries, people in diverse geographical positions relied on rainwater and developed indigenous knowledge and techniques to harvest it. This paper introduces Traditional Ecological Knowledge and Indigenous Knowledge and provides an overview of some of the traditional rainwater harvesting methods. Bamboo drip irrigation and rice-fish farming in India are reviewed as case studies.  It is vital to take into account and to learn from what local people already know and do and apply this knowledge for our planet’s benefits. These traditional rainwater harvesting practices may have a few challenges to overcome, but they can provide water conservation strategies, especially in vulnerable regions.

This is a working paper reflecting ongoing work. Comments and suggestions are welcome, please use our Contact form. An updated version will be published as part of RUVIVAL Publication Series Volume 4.

Traditional_Ecological_Knowledge_Rainwater_Harvesting_Working_Paper
Water Efficiency in Agricultural Irrigation Literature Review Creative Commons LicenseWorking Paper: Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK): Rainwater Harvesting Methods – A Review by Sumbal Tasawwar, Rahel Birhanu Kassaye and Ruth Schaldach is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

 

Traditional RWH

Traditional Rainwater Harvesting

Toolbox

Toolbox

Quiz

Decentralised Wastewater Treatment Quiz

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How much do you know about decentralised wastewater treatment? Take our quiz and put your knowledge to test in just a few minutes! If you are having any trouble, remember that all answers to quiz questions can be found throughout this Toolbox element. Good luck!

Creative Commons LicenseDecentralised Wastewater Treatment Quiz by Usama Khalid is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

 

Decentralised WWT


Toolbox

Toolbox

Quiz

Biowaste Usage Quiz

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Time for a knowledge check! Take this Biowaste Usage Quiz and see how much you have learned about this topic so far. You can return to the Quiz at any time, in case you are not feeling like an expert yet. All answers to quiz questions can be found within the Toolbox element, so make sure to check out the rest of the material for more information! Good luck!

Creative Commons LicenseBiowaste Usage Quiz by Manasa Suresh is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

 

Biowaste Usage


Toolbox

Toolbox

Toolbox

Decentralised Wastewater Treatment

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Wastewater is a key feature of public concern, especially with increased issues related to water availability, sanitation, health and sustainability. Inappropriate use and inadequate management of wastewater pose a huge threat to social welfare and ecosystems.

United Nations Sustainable Development Goals aim to ensure access to adequate and equitable sanitation and hygiene for all by 2030 while expanding recycling and safe reuse of water all around the world (Objective 6). However, as reported by WHO, around 4.5 billion people still lack access to safely managed sanitation services and 80% of wastewater flows back into the ecosystem without being reused or treated. Numerous regions of the world demonstrate a dominantly rural or peri-urban character. Sanitation data in rural communities reveal serious health, hygiene, economic and social implications that highlight the dire need to develop cost effective, more efficient and easy to maintain wastewater treatment technologies, which suit regional realities.

Decentralised wastewater systems treat and dispose relatively small volumes of wastewater, originating from single households or dwellings located in relatively close proximity with focus on the extraction of nutrients and energy, and reuse of wastewater streams. Decentralisation appears as a logical and sustainable solution to tackle wastewater management issues in rural and peri-urban areas. Numerous approaches for decentralised collection, treatment, and dispersal/reuse of wastewater exist, but there is no fixed or universal solution to the issue, making it necessary to proceed on a case-by-case basis.

For more information about this topic, please click on the elements below.

Decentralised WWT Summary

Integrated Decentralised WWT

Integrated_Decentralised_Wastewater_Treatment

Decentralised WWT Quiz


Water Saving Potential

Water_Saving_Potential_Calculator

Nutrient Recycling Potential

Nutrient Recycling Potential Calculator

Literature Review

More to come in the following weeks…

In the meantime, if you would like to learn more about rural development, please take a further look at our website. Please keep in mind that new materials are available weekly.

Join our Newsletter to receive an e-mail when new content is published.

Toolbox

Toolbox

News

Another Successful SimGame Comes to an End

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Another round of the RUVIVAL SimGame has officially come to an end. Over the course of one month, teams of students from Hamburg University of Technology in Germany and ICAM in France worked hard on planning 4 new Eco-Towns in a simulated world. They were supported by external participants, who assumed the role of Eco-Town inhabitants. From Wales to Ethiopia: the task was to find ways to incorporate different water and energy solutions with sustainable agricultural practices, while taking into consideration the specific challenges connected to the different geographic, political, economical and climatic conditions.

Just as in real life, the virtual Eco-Towns live from an intense exchange and interactions that take place, which is why it is all the more important that the Simulation Game itself also continues to grow. This round gathered 119 inhabitants. To paint a picture of the exchange
taking place – together they have written 180 articles for the Game’s own Newspaper, discussing different planing options and approaches. That is 130 more than in the previous round! Over the course of the Game, the inhabitants created 450 posts and discussed these in 2700 comments and approximately 35 000 likes.

The planers got inspired from each other  and the virtual Travel Agency was particularly busy, with over 20 trips across the world being realised. With 7 travelers, Pembrokeshire in Wales was the most visited Ecotown. Above on the right you see one of the inhabitants pursing travel tickets.

Notice the Earth in the picture above? We wouldn’t do it justice if we didn’t mention the omnipresent role it played in the Game. All communication with the outside world, as well as the Travel Agency and the Newspaper were coordinated and supervised by Earth.

The closing mass online conference, with more than 50 speakers as delegates for their subgroups, took place last week. The participants were logged in mainly from Hamburg, Paris and Toulouse. Is it possible to build bicycles from bamboo grown in constructed wetlands used for greywater treatment? How can we encourage sustainable behaviour without an restrictive penalty system and non authoritarian approached ? Which water storage system is the most suitable one for the specific climate and geographical conditions? These questions and more were answered during the final presentations.

The planning process in all Eco-Towns  benefited greatly from such a fruitful exchange. As the Simulation Game continues to grow, we look forward to the learning and knowledge transfer and exchange that is to come! We will let you know when the next round is on!

SimGame Earth

This article is also available in German.

Quiz

Raw Earth Construction Quiz

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This quiz marks the end of the Raw Earth Construction lecture by Madiana Hazoume. Test how much you have learned in this lecture by taking the quiz below. You will need 70 % to pass. You can always go back to the lectures, if you need to refresh your knowledge. Good luck!

Creative Commons LicenseRaw Earth Construction Quiz by Madiana Hazoume is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

 

Done with the quiz? Continue learning with RUVIVAL and be part of reviving the rural!

Overview

Raw Earth Construction Lecture Parts

Interactive Lectures

Interactive_Lecture

Part 1

Part 2


News

RUVIVAL at OERcamp Nord

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Hamburg, 15th and 16th June

New month, new destinations: RUVIVAL is still on tour! We just came back from the events of last month, but we can not wait to join OERcamp Nord! Again we are participating in the OERcamp, a unique meeting point for practitioners of digital and open teaching and learning materials (open educational resources) in the German-speaking area.

Approach us directly on Friday morning at the Market Place (Ger. Reuse Markt der Möglichkeiten) or register for our workshop on Friday from 2:00 pm, where we will be further discussing the possibilities of open universities and creating a future together (Ger. title: Hochschule öffnen – gemeinsam Zukunft gestalten). For this workshop we team up with our colleagues from the TU Hamburg Library and other Hamburg Open Online University projects:

TU Hamburg Library

Wissenschaftliches Arbeiten öffnen (link in German)

Wissenschaftliches Arbeiten (link in German)

SciFiVisions (link in German)

OERcamp Nord Program (link in German)

OERcamp RUVIVAL

Logo OERcamp

Lecture Parts

Raw Earth Construction, Part 2: Main Techniques of Raw Earth Construction

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Welcome to Part 2 of the lecture Raw Earth Construction by Madiana Hazoume. In this part, you learn more about the main techniques of building with raw earth. The following key questions will be answered in this lecture:

  • How to know if earth is appropriate for construction?
  • Which techniques should be used for what kind of earth?
  • What are the main techniques used for raw earth construction in the world?
  • What are the best practice examples?
  • Who are the famous architects and constructors with raw earth?

Therefore, you learn to determine if raw earth is an appropriate construction material for your construction site.  Furthermore, you are able to choose the appropriate technique for different types of raw earth.

After you finish this part, you can take the lecture quiz and test your knowledge.

Creative Commons LicenseRaw Earth Construction, Part 2: Main Techniques of Raw Earth Construction by Madiana Hazoume is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Overview

Raw Earth Construction Lecture Parts

Interactive Lectures

Interactive_Lecture

Quiz

Quiz Raw Earth Construction

Part 1


 

Lecture Parts

Groundwater Dams in Arid and Semi-arid Areas, Part 4: Siltation in Sand Storage Dams

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Welcome to Part 4 of the interactive lecture on Groundwater Dams in Arid and Semi-arid Areas by Josep de Trincheria. In this part, you learn more about the process of siltation in sand storage dams. The following questions will be answered:

  • What is siltation and why does it matter?
  • How can siltation be minimised?
  • How can silted up sand storage dams be restored and rehabilitated?

Therefore, this lecture provides an insight into why it is important to address the issue of siltation in sand storage dams and provides recommendations based on practice.

At the end of this lecture, you can test your knowledge in the lecture quiz.

Creative Commons LicenseGroundwater Dams in Arid and Semi-arid Areas, Part 4: Siltation in Sand Storage Dams by Josep de Trincheria is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

 

Overview

Groundwater Dams Overview

Interactive Lectures

Interactive Lectures

Quiz

Quiz Groundwater Dams in Arid and semi-arid Areas

Part 1

Part 1: Groundwater Dams – Potential and Significance

Part 2

Part 2: Subsurface Dams and Sand Storage Dams

Part 3

Part 3 Lecture Groundwater Dams

 

Allgemein

Biowaste Usage Video

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The following video will give you an insight into potential uses for biowaste and why they are an important measure for fighting climate change. For more information, make sure to check out the rest of the material on this topic. Enjoy!

Creative Commons LicenseBiowaste Usage Video by Manasa Suresh is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

 

Biowaste Usage


Toolbox

Toolbox

Toolbox

Biowaste Usage

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Biowaste stands for discarded biodegradable material. This means it can be broken down into carbon dioxide, water, methane or simple organic molecules by micro-organisms under anaerobic and aerobic conditions. One of the main reasons why biowaste represents a threat to the environment is the production of methane during its decomposing in landfills. This environmental impact can be significantly reduced through separate collection and use of biowaste.

In terms of usage potential, meaning soil or energy recovery, biowaste is still largely underutilised. Employing traditional practices in recycling, reusing and composting can significantly decrease uncontrolled waste disposal, which is especially important in regions without access to formal collection services. Composting, for example, can even ensure the generation of good quality natural fertiliser, which is why this practice should be encouraged.

For more information about this topic, please click on the elements below.

Biowaste Usage Video

 https://www.ruvival.de/biowaste-usage-video/

Biowaste Usage Quiz

More to come in the following weeks…

In the meantime, if you would like to learn more about rural development, please take a further look at our website. Please keep in mind that new materials are available weekly and join our Newsletter to receive an e-mail when new content is published.

Toolbox

Toolbox

Lecture Parts

Groundwater Dams in Arid and Semi-arid Areas, Part 3: Key Performance Factors

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Welcome to Part 3 of the interactive lecture on Groundwater Dams in Arid and Semi-arid Areas by Josep de Trincheria. In this part, you learn more about the key performance factors for groundwater dams. The following key questions and more will be answered in this lecture:

  • What are the performance factors of groundwater dams?
  • How can the performance, cost-efficiency and impacts of groundwater dams be optimised?

Therefore, this lecture looks deeper into the technical, economic and environmental specifications of the different groundwater dams and discusses opportunities for their optimisation.

At the end of all lecture parts, you can test your knowledge in the lecture quiz.

Creative Commons LicenseGroundwater Dams in Arid and Semi-arid Areas, Part 3: Key Performance Factors by Josep de Trincheria is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

 

Overview

Groundwater Dams Overview

Interactive Lectures

Interactive Lectures

Part 4

Quiz

Quiz Groundwater Dams in Arid and semi-arid Areas

Part 1

Part 1: Groundwater Dams – Potential and Significance

Part 2

Part 2: Subsurface Dams and Sand Storage Dams

News

RUVIVAL on Tour: IFAT, OERcamp & Meet the HOOU

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RUVIVAL is going on tour! We look forward to meeting you at the following events in May, so mark your calendars and let’s revive the rural! Stay tuned for further events in June.

OERcamp Süd

Bad Wildbad, 11th and 12th May

Our first stop is the wonderful village of Bad Wildbad in the South of Germany, where for the second time we are participating in the OERcamp. OERcamp is a unique meeting point for practitioners of digital and open teaching and learning materials in the German-speaking area. Approach us directly on Friday at the Market Place (Ger. Markt der Möglichkeiten), or register for our workshop on Saturday from 9:30 am, where we will be further exploring the possibilities for teaching and learning synergies. Curious to know more about the OERcamps? Read about our last year’s impressions here.

Logo OERcamp

OERcamps (link in German)

OERcamp Süd Program (link in German)

 

IFAT

Munich, 14th to 18th May

IFAT is the world’s leading trade fair for water, sewage, waste and raw materials management. You can come and meet us from Monday to Friday in the Experience.Science.Future Area (Hall B4, close to Gate 5) at the stand of the Institute of Wastewater Management and Water Protection. On Tuesday, 15th of May at 2 pm we will be presenting RUVIVAL in the Session Area Future (Hall B 4.150/250). The topic of our presentation is RUVIVAL: collaborative e-learning for sustainable rural development.

Logo IFAT

 

Meet the HOOU

Hamburg, 31st May

To cap the month off, together with our HOOU sister projects, we will be opening our doors to all of you interested in meeting HOOU, discussing and getting involved. Come and show off your RUVIVAL knowledge, for a chance to win a prize!

Logo Meet the HOOU

Meet the HOOU (link in German)

Meet the HOOU Program (link in German)

Interactive Image

newTree Semi-Circular Bunds

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Semi-circular bunds represent a land-based rainwater harvesting technique which is mostly used for rangeland improvement and fodder production. Click on the hotspots to learn more!

This Toolbox Element was developed in collaboration with newTree and represents a practical implementation of this technique on their project site. Read more about newTree here.

Rainwater Harvesting Landscape Creative Commons LicenseSemi-Circular Bunds by RUVIVAL Team and newTree is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

 

Land-based RWH

Land-based Rainwater Harvesting

Toolbox

Toolbox

News

RUVIVAL in practice: Project newTree

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This week we introduce you to another sustainable  rural development project which is implementing exactly those practices RUVIVAL is set to teach: meet newTree!

We have also partnered up to create learning materials about the practices they are implementing, so make sure to have a look at the newTree Semi-Circular Bunds example!

newTree: Local women carrying the harvest
Local women carrying the harvest

In Burkina Faso, a landlocked country in the African Sahel region, over 80 % of the population lives from subsistence farming. Population growth, deforestation and the effects of climate change accelerate the degradation and erosion of soils, thus threatening rural families’ livelihoods. Since 2003, newTree has been developing and implementing an effective approach that supports local communities in restoring ecosystems and soil fertility, improving living conditions and gaining new sources of income. The participatory newTree approach is based on the principle of knowledge transfer: through awareness building, instructions, coaching and provision of basic materials, newTree ensures that farmers and women’s groups can replicate methods autonomously and sustainably.

newTree Activities

newTree activities are centered on four pillars which together form a holistic, sustainable agroforestry system. First, the natural regeneration of ecosystems is achieved through the fencing of land, which offers protection from grazing and woodcutting. Gradually, the natural vegetation recovers, first through grasses, later through shrubs and trees, which build a critical basis through their root system and shade.

Farmers are then instructed in effective, sustainable and organic agricultural methods, which improve water retention, erosion protection and fertility. Farmers can either apply these methods within or outside of their protected sites. Critically, the resulting natural regeneration not only restores ecosystems, but also provides local farming communities with new and sustainable sources of food and income.

To reduce the need for firewood and logging – over 80 % of cooking in Burkina Faso is done on open fireplaces – newTree instructs women in building improved cooking stoves. The improved stoves reduce wood consumption by 60 %, which amounts to almost 2 tonnes of wood per year and household. The stoves are built by the women themselves, based on traditional methods and using locally available materials.

The making of improved cooking stoves
Aerial view of a newTree parcel

Finally, farmers and women’s groups receive training in activities to develop new, wood independent sources of income. Depending on local conditions and demand, these activities can range from beekeeping and honey production to hay, seedling or vegetable production, the transformation and commercialization of non- wood forest products or the raising of livestock such as sheep, goats or cattle.

To date, newTree has enabled the set-up of over 300 enclosures protecting 600,000 trees, the sustainable cultivation of close to 20,000 ha of degraded land and the construction of 65,000 improved cooking stoves. Together with its local partner tiipaalga, over 150,000 inhabitants have been reached, which amounts to 5 % of the population in the newTree project areas. These achievements motivate the local team of 53 employees even further to establish tiipaalga as a guiding light in the promotion of sustainable agriculture and improved living conditions of rural families in Burkina Faso.

For more information, please visit:

newTree Semi-Circular Bunds

Website of the newTree Project (available in German and French)

newTree YouTube Channel

Article about newTree in Frankfurter Allgemeine (Link in German)

Calculation

Soil Erosion Calculator

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The average annual rate of erosion on a field can be predicted with the use of the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE). This equation integrates the local rainfall pattern, soil type, topography, crop system and management practices. The following Soil Erosion Calculator is a Tool to calculate the average annual rate of erosion. It is based on the USLE equation and can be applied globally.

Nevertheless, the USLE equation and thus the Soil Erosion Calculator has two main limitations that need to be considered. Firstly, the calculator is an estimate based on ample and variable factors. These factors may vary with changing climate conditions, alternating usage of the soil, etc. Therefore, the resulting soil loss must be viewed as a long-term average. Secondly, the calculator only accounts for soil losses due to sheet or rill erosion on a single slope. Soil losses associated with gully erosion, wind erosion or from tillage are not included.

Soil Erosion Calculator

1. Erosivity Factor (Rainfall Factor) [(MJ mm) / (ha h yr)] – Slide 2-3:

2. Soil Erodibility [(t / ha)] – Slide 4-5:

3.1. Slope [%] – Slide 6:

3.2. Slope Length [m] – Slide 6:

4. Crop Type Factor[-] – Slide 7-8:

5. Tillage Factor [-] – Slide 7-8:

6. Support Factor [-] – Slide 9-10:

 

Annual Average Soil Erosion Rate (t/h/yr):

 

After calculating your Soil Erosion Rate, you can use the following table to find out about your Soil Erosion Class. Depending on your class, you may consider to implement Soil Erosion Strategies on your field. Play around with the factors you inserted priorly, to see if there is a particular factor that influences your Soil Erosion Rate strongly.

 

There is a computerized version of the USLE equation, named Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE). RUSLE is an improved formula, that can handle more complex combinations of tillage and cropping practices and a greater variety of slopes. A further-enhanced version the software is RUSLE2, which can do event-based erosion prediction. RUSLE2 requires a comprehensive set of input information, which may not be available in all jurisdictions.

The Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) is a physically-based soil erosion prediction technology. It integrates hydrology, plant science, hydraulics and erosion mechanisms to predict erosion at the hillslope and watershed scale. It is capable of modelling and assessing a variety of land uses, climate and hydrologic conditions. It can be run offline on personal computers supporting Windows.

Creative Commons LicenseSoil Erosion Calculator by Antonio Seoane Dominguez and Ruth Schaldach is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

 

Soil Erosion

Soil Erosion

Toolbox

Toolbox

News

Applications for the RUVIVAL Simulation Game are now open!

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As revealed last week, we are happy to announce that the Simulation Game applications are now open! The game will officially start on the 14th of May and we recommend that you join us from the beginning, as you will get to observe and participate in the entire planning process! Late applications will also be accepted, in case there are still free spots left.

So, how do you apply for to participate in the Simulation Game?

1. Go to the Simulation Game page and get further informed about the game.

2. Fill in the registration form.

3. Shortly before the start of the Game, you will get an e-mail invitation to join our system.

4. Join us in planning new and improved ecological towns!

We look forward to having you on board!

RUVIVAL Simulation Game Applications Now Open
Go to registration

 

News

Upcoming RUVIVAL Events: Simulation Game and ICAM Guest Lecture

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Simulation Game

May is just around the corner and with it some exciting RUVIVAL events, most notably – the new round of the RUVIVAL Simulation Game! Next week, we will start accepting applications for external participants – the application form and further instructions will be available on our website, so make sure to stick around!

Quick recap about the Simulation Game:

It is an interactive learning tool for planning eco-towns. The planning takes place in a simulated world, on the platform HumHub. The aim is to employ ecological design using system thinking and synergetic effects of resource cycles. The planning groups, consisting of students from participating universities, exchange their knowledge, as they experience similar obstacles in the planning process despite being in a different environment. Each planning group has subgroups focusing on water, energy, buildings, transport or community impact, just to name some aspects.

Simulation Game Platform

As an external participant, you play the role of a future inhabitant in one of the newly planned towns. You are able to take action and influence the planning progress. Still not sure if the Simulation Game is for you? Read more about the Simulation Game, as well as about the experiences from the previous year.

 

New Interactive Lecture in Collaboration with ICAM France

Some months ago, we gave away hints about the novelties of the upcoming Simulation Game. One thing that is new is that our project partners from ICAM France have developed an Interactive Lecture to be used as learning material for the participating students and during the Game. This lecture is of course also available for the wider public on the RUVIVAL website. We have just published Part 1 and you can reach it here. Start learning about raw earth construction today and get ready for the next round of the Simulation Game! We look forward to having you!

Lecture Parts

Raw Earth Construction, Part 1: Properties of Raw Earth

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Welcome to Part 1 of the interactive lecture on Raw Earth Construction by Madiana Hazoume. This part introduces the properties of raw earth and sustainability aspects of earth buildings. The following questions will be answered in this lecture:

  • What is raw earth?
  • Where and when has this material been used in construction?
  • How can raw earth material improve thermal comfort in a building?
  • Why is raw earth a sustainable material?

Therefore, this lecture gives you an historical background and practice examples. Furthermore, it goes into detail on using raw earth for insulation purposes.

At the end of both parts, you can test your knowledge in the lecture quiz.

Creative Commons LicenseRaw Earth Construction, Part 1: Properties of Raw Earth by Madiana Hazoume is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Overview

Raw Earth Construction Lecture Parts

Interactive Lectures

Interactive_Lecture

Part 2


Quiz

Quiz Raw Earth Construction

 

Lectures

Raw Earth Construction

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Raw earth is a natural material, which has been used in construction since ancient times. It consists of a compacted mixture of moist clay and sand. Raw earth is an excellent building material, as it has many properties similar to concrete. It is especially suitable in countries with a hot climate. A variety of raw earth construction techniques already exist and developed over centuries.

Switch on your loudspeakers/headset for this interactive multimedia lecture, which consists of 2 parts. At the end of the lecture, you have a chance to test your knowledge in the lecture quiz.

Part 1

Part 2

Part 2 Lecture Raw Earth Construction

Quiz

Quiz Raw Earth Construction

Background on Raw Earth as a Sustainable Building Material

Although raw earth as a building material existed for a long time, it only recently gained interest, due to its eco-friendly properties and significant energy saving potential across all stages of its life cycle. Therefore, raw earth can be a cornerstone for constructing eco-houses.

Unlike conventional masonry bricks, the soil and water mix in raw earth is used almost in its natural state. There is ample evidence, both historic and contemporary, that raw earth can be a durable construction material. Famous raw earth constructions include the Fujian Tulou in China and the new Ricola Kräuterzentrum (German for herb center) in Switzerland by the famous architecture firm Herzog and de Mauron.

However, shifting cement to raw earth construction will require to overcome not only technical, but also cultural challenges. One major challenge is to overcome the prejudices, that raw earth constructions are not suitable for contemporary architecture. Furthermore, to break the perception, that cement is not automatically better as it is a more recent construction method. Regardless of this challenge, the interest in raw earth as a building material and alternative to cement increased.

About the lecturer

Madiana Hazoume gives this two part lecture on Raw Earth Construction. She is a lecturer and project manager at ICAM Paris in 2018, responsible for the thematic area Sustainable Buildings and Cities. Before joining ICAM, Madiana worked internationally as a civil engineer in France, Senegal, Madagascar and Canada. Her fields of expertise include sustainable building, thermal building, structural resistance and energy efficiency of buildings.

Join our newsletter to receive an e-mail when new content is published.

In case you feel like you have mastered this topic, but would still like to know more about rural development, please have a further look at the materials on our website.

Interactive Lectures

Interactive_Lecture

 

 

Interactive Image

Soil Erosion Control Measures

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The following image comprises the most common soil erosion control measures. Nevertheless, there are more measures that can help prevent soil from eroding and these should always be considered individually for each field. Click on the dots for more information.

Creative Commons LicenseSoil Erosion Control Measures by Antonio Seoane Dominguez is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

 

Soil Erosion

Soil Erosion

Toolbox

Toolbox

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