Literature Review

Rural Energy Systems Literature Review

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Providing access to electricity in rural areas is a major challenge, especially in developing countries. Inefficient energy use and an unreliable energy supply with limited access not only has an adverse effect on economic productivity; more importantly, it also affects people’s quality of life and is having a strong impact on the environment at local (land degradation), regional (air, water and soil pollution) and global levels (climate change). This paper reviews distributed renewable energy systems and concentrates on energy services for electricity generation in Africa.

This is a working paper reflecting ongoing work. Comments and suggestions are welcome, please refer to our discussion forum RUVIVAL Community. An updated version of this paper will be published as part of RUVIVAL Publication Series Volume 5.

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Water Efficiency in Agricultural Irrigation Literature Review Creative Commons License Energy Access for Sustainable Rural Development: Literature Review on Distributed Renewable Energy for Rural Electrification in Africa by Tina Carmesin, Benedikt Buchspies and Ruth Schaldach is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

 

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Literature Review

Soil Erosion Literature Review

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Soil erosion is a devastating process leaving landscapes infertile and difficult to revive. The Global Soil Status is already at a worrisome state and research on erosion measures is getting more and more important. The following Literature Review gives you an overview on soil erosion processes and most recent research on the topic. The focus is set on erosion measures, firstly, to prevent erosion and secondly, to reverse erosion.

This is a working paper reflecting ongoing work. Comments and suggestions are welcome, please refer to our discussion forum RUVIVAL Community. An updated version of this paper will be published as part of RUVIVAL Publication Series Volume 5.

Soil_Erosion_Working_Paper
Water Efficiency in Agricultural Irrigation Literature Review Creative Commons LicenseSoil Erosion by Antonio Seoane Dominguez and Ruth Schaldach is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

 

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Literature Review

World Soil Resources Literature Review

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During the last few decades, technological innovations, economic development and hyper-globalisation, have made significant changes to the fundamental structure of the Earth. This includes the soil, which is one of the most important substances for living creatures. FAO defines soil degradation as the decline in soil health condition, as a result of which the capacity of ecosystems to provide goods and services for its beneficiaries is diminished.

The total amount of arable land decreased, mainly due to unsuitable land usage related to agricultural practices. The Third Agricultural Revolution and growing food demands have put critical stress on agricultural land resulting in serious soil degradation. As a result of modern agricultural practices, both chemical and physical degradation of soil occur. An interrelated factor contributing to the loss of arable land is erosion, which is a naturally occurring process, which can be promoted by human activities.

This paper reviews research conducted on the global soil situation and goes deeper into regional soil conditions. Geographically specific causes for soil loss are also given. Soil management and monitoring systems are recommended, however, it should be noted that each system needs to be adapted to its specific environment.

This is a working paper reflecting ongoing work. Comments and suggestions are welcome, please use our Contact form. An updated version will be published as part of RUVIVAL Publication Series Volume 4.

Global_Soil_Status_Working_Paper
Creative Commons LicenseWorking Paper: A Review of the Global Soil Status Introducing Regional Soil Conditions by Zhuoheng Chen, Tavseef Mairaj Shah and Ruth Schaldach is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

 

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Literature Review

Decentralised Wastewater Treatment Literature Review

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Sustainable wastewater management in any situation is the one that is economically affordable, environmentally sound, technically and institutionally consistent, and socially acceptable for the specific situation. This paper presents a review of the advantages and limitations of various centralised and decentralised wastewater treatment options. Centralised wastewater collection and treatment systems are resource intensive and complex to build and operate, especially in areas with low population densities and dispersed households. Alternatively, the approach of decentralised wastewater treatment appears as a sustainable and logical solution to tackle problems of rural wastewater management.

This is a working paper reflecting ongoing work. Comments and suggestions are welcome, please use our Contact form. An updated version will be published as part of RUVIVAL Publication Series Volume 4.

Decentralised_WWT_Working_Paper
Water Efficiency in Agricultural Irrigation Literature Review Creative Commons LicenseWorking Paper: Integrated decentralised wastewater treatment for rural areas with focus on resource recovery by Usama Khalid and Carla Orozco Garcia is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

 

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Literature Review

Traditional Rainwater Harvesting Literature Review

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Over centuries, people in diverse geographical positions relied on rainwater and developed indigenous knowledge and techniques to harvest it. This paper introduces Traditional Ecological Knowledge and Indigenous Knowledge and provides an overview of some of the traditional rainwater harvesting methods. Bamboo drip irrigation and rice-fish farming in India are reviewed as case studies.  It is vital to take into account and to learn from what local people already know and do and apply this knowledge for our planet’s benefits. These traditional rainwater harvesting practices may have a few challenges to overcome, but they can provide water conservation strategies, especially in vulnerable regions.

This is a working paper reflecting ongoing work. Comments and suggestions are welcome, please use our Contact form. An updated version will be published as part of RUVIVAL Publication Series Volume 4.

Traditional_Ecological_Knowledge_Rainwater_Harvesting_Working_Paper
Water Efficiency in Agricultural Irrigation Literature Review Creative Commons LicenseWorking Paper: Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK): Rainwater Harvesting Methods – A Review by Sumbal Tasawwar, Rahel Birhanu Kassaye and Ruth Schaldach is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

 

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Literature Review

Sustainable Irrigation Literature Review

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Agricultural irrigation has been one of the key activities for achieving food security throughout history. The text reviews the most recent research results on common types of irrigation methods, systems and their impact in specific socio economic or climatic environments. The relation of water  resources and irrigation is described in more detail, including the impacts of irrigation methods on water resources. Finally, you can read about the role of policy, research, technologies and management to improve water use efficiency in irrigation. The goal is to avoid water scarcity caused by irrigated agriculture and to find sustainable irrigation solutions.

 

This is a working paper. An updated version is published as part of RUVIVAL Publication Series Volume 3.

 

Water Efficiency in Agricultual Irrigation Working Paper
Water Efficiency in Agricultural Irrigation Literature Review Creative Commons LicenseWater Efficiency in Agricultural Irrigation by Monina Orlina and Ruth Schaldach is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

 

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Literature Review

Rainwater Harvesting Literature Review

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Water may seem abundant, but less than one percent of the world’s water is readily accessible for human needs. One proposed solution to fight this water scarcity and stress, and include local factors into the equation, are water harvesting practices, and more specifically Rain Water Harvesting (RWH). Learn more in this Rainwater Harvesting Literature Review.
UPDATE: The updated version of this literature review is part of RUVIVAL Publication Series Volume 2. A working version of this paper was previously published on RUVIVAL. It can be read here.

Further literature reviews on rainwater collection, storage and reuse methods:

 

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Literature Review

Urine Utilisation Literature Review

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The utilisation of urine has showed many advantages according to different researchers and projects undertaken in different countries. However, even though hygiene quality is normally very high compared to faeces, certain risks still exist. Learn what the advantages and risks are and how they can be managed in this Urine Utilisation Literature Review.

This is a working paper. An updated version is published as part of RUVIVAL Publication Series Volume 3.

Utilisation_of_Urine_in_Agriculture
Creative Commons LicenseUrine Utilisation in Agriculture by Andrea Munoz Ardila, Maryeluz Rueda Morales, Ruth Schaldach and Joachim Behrendt is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

 

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Literature Review

Aquifer Recharge Literature Review

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What are aquifers and why are they important? How does aquifer recharge occur? What can be done to enhance it? Which implications does this have for arid and semi-arid regions? To answer all these questions and more, please have a look at the Aquifer Recharge Literature Review below.

This is a working paper. An updated version is published as part of RUVIVAL Publication Series Volume 2.

Aquifer Recharge Working Paper

Creative Commons LicenseAquifer Recharge by Berenice Mendez Lopez and Lukas Huhn is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

 

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Literature Review

Terra Preta Sanitation Literature Review

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This Terra Preta Sanitation literature review introduces the current state of the art of this dry sanitation system. The text will enable you to dive deeper into the topic and processes that entail this dry sanitation solution. These are Lactic acid fermentation and Vermicomposting by earth worms. Case studies in India, Phillipines and Ethiopia, where TPS systems have been implemented are also introduced, along with their most significant research outcomes.

 

This is a working paper. An updated version is published as part of RUVIVAL Publication Series Volume 3.

 

Terra_Preta_Sanitation_Working_Paper
Creative Commons License A Review of Terra Preta Sanitation with a Focus on the Research Outcomes of TUHH Dario Fröndhoff, Ruth Schaldach, Ralf Otterpohl is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

 

For further information on Terra Preta Sanitation, click on the element below.

Terra Preta Sanitation

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Literature Review

Living Terraces Literature Review

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In this Living Terraces literature review, we will discuss the role of living terraces in erosion control and rainwater harvesting. The concept of living terraces is a combination of several erosion control methods. It aims to minimise the needed workload and begins to be productive soon after establishment. The entire structure, with both vertical and horizontal elements, is made out of living trees. This greatly increases their stability and durability. We will first introduce you to conventional erosion control measures – hedgerows, swales and terraces. The literature review will also explain proper building practices and propose suitable plant species.

This literature review is part of our RUVIVAL Publication Series Volume 1 (page 14.).

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Literature Review

Agroforestry Literature Review

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This agroforestry literature review will provide you with additional information on the concept of agroforestry and its benefits, but also challenges. In addition, we will introduce you the Slope Farming Project in Arba Minch, Ethiopia. This project is currently developed as a collaboration between Hamburg University of Technology and the Arba Minch University.

This literature review is part of our RUVIVAL Publication Series Volume 1 (page 6).

RUVIVAL_Publication_Series_Volume_1

 

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Literature Review

Check Dams Literature Review

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In this check dams literature review you will get a chance to learn more about check dams, their classification, as well as advantages and disadvantages. You will also learn about the basic construction guidelines and design recommendations, but also about practices that should be avoided. Finally, you will be introduced to a case study of the Loess Plateau of China, which is a good example of potential advantages and disadvantages of a consistent number of check-dams in a severely eroded site.

This literature review is part of our RUVIVAL Publication Series Volume 1 (page 20).

RUVIVAL_Publication_Series_Volume_1

 

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